St Joseph Calasanz, celebrated on 25 August, founded the clerical regulars of pious schools. His first school in Rome dates to 1597. He could be considered as the first founder of Institutes exclusively devoted to education of male youth. These Institutes are so numerous that we shall not mention here the clerical religious Congregations (Jesuits, Basilians, Marianists, Salesians, etc.), and only consider the Institutes of Brothers in the chronological order of their foundation. It can be noticed that many go back to the first half of the XIXth century and that their countries of origin are few: especially France, Ireland and Holland.

– Brothers of Christian Schools, founded in France by St J-Baptiste de la Salle in 1680; Brothers of St Gabriel, founded by St Louis Mary Grignion de Montfort in 1715, and refounded by Gabriel Deshayes in 1821;

– Institute for youth service, founded in France by Jean-Joseph Allemand in 1799;

– Christian Brothers, founded in Ireland by Bl Edmund Ignatius RiCe in 1802;

– Presentation Brothers, founded in Ireland in 1802;

– Brothers of Charity at Ghent, founded in Belgium by P. J. Triest in 1807;

– Patrician Brothers, founded in Ireland by Mgr Daniel Delany in 1808;

– Brothers of Christian Instruction of Ploermel, founded in France by Jean-Marie de La Mennais and Gabriel Deshayes in 1817;

– Marist Brothers for schools, fo nded in France by St Marcellin Champagnat in 1817;

– Franciscan Brothers, founded in Ireland by Michael Dillon in 1818;

– Brothers of the Sacred Heart founded in France by Andre Coindre in 1821;

– Fratelli di N.S. della Misericordia, founded in Italy by Mgr Victor Scheppers in 1830;

– Clerics of Saint-Viateur, founded at Vourles (France) by Louis Querbes in 1831;

– Brothers of the Holy Family, founded by Bl Taborin in 1835, in Belley (France);    ·

– Xaverian Brothers, founded in the United States in 18 9;

– Brothers of the Immaculate Conception, founded in Holland by Mgr L.H. Rutten and Br. Bemardus Hoecken in 1840;

– Brothers of Our Lady, Mother of Mercy, founded in Holland by Mgr Joannes Zwijsen in 1844;

– Broeders van Huijbergen, founded in Holland in 1854;

Franciscan Brothers of the Third Order, founded in the United States in 1859.


It is impossible to provide here the list of the 41 diocesan Congregations of Africa, often having very few members, but we shall mention two which are more numerous and which together count for more than a fourth of the total in all these Institutes: Bannakaroli Brothers, founded in Uganda by Mgr Streichers in 1927 and Bene-Yusefa, founded at Burundi by Mgr Grauls in 1944.